Arunachal Pradesh

Home >> States >> Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is one of the twenty-nine states of the Republic of India. Located in northeast India, it holds the most north-eastern position among the states in the north-east region of India. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Burma in the east and China in the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state.

Most of the state, formerly called the North-East Frontier Agency, was ceded to Britain by the Tibetan government with the Simla Accord (1914). China does not recognise the legality of that treaty, and claims most of the state as South Tibet. The state is seen to have major potential for hydropower development. Arunachal Pradesh literally means the land of dawnlit mountains or the land of rising Sun in India. Geographically it is situated in the Eastern Himalayas and constitutes one of the 12 mega bio diversities of the world. The entire territory forms a complex mountain system with varying elevations ranging from 50m at the foothills and gradually ascending to about 7000m, traversed throughout by a number of rivers and rivulets. Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayan mountains with Kangto (7090m), Nyegi Kangsang (7050m), the main Gorichen peak (6488m) and the Eastern Gorichen peak (6222m) being some of the taller peaks. Parts of Lohit, Tirap and Changlang are covered by the Patkai ranges. The history of Arunachal Pradesh is a virtual treasure trove of myths and fascinating traditions. Nature has been exceedingly kind and has endowed the state of Arunachal Pradesh with diverse forests and most magnificent wildlife. Arunachal Pradesh is a serene land tucked into the northeastern tip of India and invites everyone to relax amidst its picturesque hills and valleys, enjoy its salubrious climate and provides opportunities to meet the hospitable people having glorious heritage of arts, crafts and colorful festivals.

Arunachal Pradesh State Basic Information

Capital Itanagar
Area 83.743 km2
Population 1,383,727
No. of District 20
Literacy Rate 65.38%
Chief Minister Kalikho Pul
Governer Jyoti Prasad Rajkhowa
Sex Ratio 938
Language English
Date of Formation 20th February 1987
State Animal Gayal
State Bird Hornbill
State Flower Foxtail Orchid
State Tree Hollong
Official Website


The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.


Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has 83,743 square kilometre area.

Most of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan ranges running north south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.


The land of rising sun, Arunachal Pradesh has a rich cultural heritage. The culture of Arunachal Pradesh is truly varied in the sense that the state has 26 major tribes including sub-tribes. Every tribe has their own unique set of traditions and customs. The rich culture of the state gets its colors from the handicrafts that reveal the expert craftsmanship of artisans. The people of Arunachal Pradesh are generally god fearing and they celebrate lot of festivals accompanied by music and dance. They have their own set of rituals and customs to be followed on all occasions.

The complete populace of the state can be divided into three cultural clusters based on the origin of their socio-politico-religious resemblance. The tribal societies are casteless and they are administrated by Chiefs and the Senior Members of the villages.


The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra, leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. The main universities are the Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University), Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University and Himalayan University as well, together with nine affiliated Government Colleges as well as four private colleges. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964. The First Technical University is Established in 2014 namely North East Frontier Technical University (NEFTU) In Aalo, West Siang District by The Automobile Society India, New Delhi.


The state, on account of its unrivalled aesthetics and diverse cultural heritage possesses a great tourism potential. Popular tourist attractions include Tawang (a town with a Buddhist monastery) at 3000 m elevation, Ziro (which holds cultural festivals),Yomcha (limestone caves called 'tapen uru'), the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place as per the popular Hindu mythology, Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife, said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district as Puranas is the lake where sage Parshuram washed away his sins, The Ganga lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi)and various other tourist hot spots.


Arunachal Pradesh is not a linguistic state. The state comprises twenty districts. In general, those districts are sub-divided into a number of subdivisions, which encompass several blocks, towns, circles, and villages. Villages are the smallest administrative units. The governor is the head of the state and is aided by the chief minister, a Council of Ministers, and a Legislative Assembly. Consisting of 60 Member of the Legislative Assembly, the present Legislative Assembly of Arunachal Pradesh is unicameral.