Goa


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Goa, a state in northeastern India, is the gateway to the land of seven-sisters comprising of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Goa is a land of majestic mountains, mighty rivers, lovely woods, waterfalls, and serene silences. Apart from its breathtaking natural beauty, the area is a place of historic monuments, wildlife sanctuaries, temples and is famous for its religion, especially the mystique of trantricism.

Goa State Basic Information

Capital Panjim
Area 3, 702 sq. km
Population 1,458,500
No. of District 2
Literacy Rate 87.01%
Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar
Governer Mridula Sinha
Sex Ratio 973
Language Konkani, Marathi, Portuguese
Date of Formation 29th May, 1987
State Animal Gaur
State Bird Yellow-throated bulbul
State Flower No Yet Declared
State Tree Terminalia elliptica
Official Website www.goa.gov.in

History

In the later Vedic period (c.1000-500 BC) when the Hindu epic "Mahabharata" was written, Goa has been referred to with the Sanskrit name "Gomantak", a word with many meanings, signifying mostly a fertile land. A mystical legend is a collection from Krishna’s stories according to which Lord Krishna became fond of the coastal area of Konkan. He then named the area Govapuri (gov: cows) after the cows belonging to the locals. But this is considered today to be more mythology than history.

In the 3rd century BC Goa formed part of the Mauryan Empire by the Emperor Ashoka. After him many empires subsequently tried to form their base permanently in Gomantak, prominent among which included Satavahana’s, Chalukya’s, Silhara’s and Kadamba’s in the 11th century. The period of the Kadambas is considered to be the first golden age of Goa. The death of the last Chalukya king in 1198 weakened their alliance and this exposed Goa to the vulnerability to Muslim invasions that took place continuously after that.

Geography

The state of Goa is located on the western coast of Indian Peninsula. It arrived on the map of India and the world on 29th May, 1987. Maharashtra binds Goa in north and is separated by Terekhol River. It touches the boundaries of Karnataka in south, providing a natural enclosure by Western Ghats in the east and Arabian Sea in the West. The geographical location of Goa is 15 degrees, 48'00" N to 14 degrees Latitude and from 74degrees, 20'13" E to 73 degrees 40' 33" E Longitude.

Physically one third of Goa is covered by forests, the actual number being 1424.38Sqkms. Its geography divides the state into three geographical divisions. These are Mountainous Region formed by Sahyadri Ranges in the east, Plateau Region in the center and low-lying river basins and coastal plains. The highest mountain is Sonsogor in the Sahyadri range of the Western Ghats which is 3,827 feet. Sahyadris Ranges are spread over an area of about 600 sq km, having an average elevation of 800 m. Some other major peaks of the ranges include Vaguerim, Morlemchogor and Catlanchimauli.

Culture

Goa, a former Portuguese colony, also referred as the ‘Rome of East’ is one of the most happening and modern tourist destination in India with heritage goan culture and tradition. Goa is enriched with cultural heritage that include folk songs, dances, music, visual arts and folk tales. The Goans are fond of football. Environmental issues are prominently featured in Goa. Moreover, Goa’s exotic beaches that sprawl over wide and soft sands as well as the sea food of Goa are much admired and liked by people visiting Goa from different places.

It is known as a multi-ethnic state with a majority of Hindu and Muslim along with Catholic minority. People here are extremely modern and have their inclination towards contemporary advancements. A lot has been inherited from Portuguese in the form of attire which is western including skirts worn by women. Be it the western music including jazz, techno as well as western classic or western cuisines including the amazing sea food, everything in cultural Goa has great western influence. But it’s been 40 years since the Portuguese left Goa and since then Goa has turned itself to being one of the most westernized and dashing places in India, which is much frequented and loved by tourists from across the world.

People here live in perfect harmony and participate in each others’ religious festivals. Goa is famous for its Indo-Latin festivals especially the carnivals, witnessed by numerous people every year. Other popular festivals observed in Goa are Shigmo- the spring festival and Shivaratri. New Year is celebrated in Goa with great pomp and show.

Education

Just like most states of India, the state government mostly manages the education system of Goa, although various institutions are private run. . Education in Goa has gone through a number of stages. From the pathshala (small rural schools) kind of education to the Portuguese and finally the English, it has come a long way. We have primary school within the radius of every three Sq. km, middle school at every 9.39 and secondary school at every 9.37 Sq Km. The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) in India, which maintains the standard and quality of education in the colleges and universities, have accredited many institutions for higher education. As for the medium of instruction in the schools and colleges, English has a wider reach. Although, there are a few schools who have the mother tongue (Konkani and Hindi) as the medium of instruction in the primary school level.

There are several professional colleges, including engineering, polytechnics, and Industrial Technical Institutes ITIs. Though there are sufficient numbers of schools and colleges in Goa, however the lone university, Goa University is facing a bigger challenge today as it cannot accommodate the increasing demand of students for post graduation. The availability of seats for different courses is limited, thus denying the students the right for post graduate studies. The prestigious National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is a leader in marine research in India. The Central Library in Panaji and the Xavier Centre for Historical Research store a vast resevoir of knowledge on Goa's past. High schools proliferate in Goa and some offer ICSC and Government of India Central Board courses.

Economy

Goa is one of the fastest growing states in the country.Though most people may assume that most of the state's income comes only from tourism; the fact is that Goa gets revenue from all sources including fisheries, exports of iron, manufacturing industries and tourism of course. The state is highly dependent on foreign exchange, which has helped fuel the growth of resorts, helped in state beautification, hotels and other businesses related to tourism. Goa’s hippie past from the 60’s and 70’s to its cultural era with inputs from the Portuguese, Dutch and British receives much appreciation from Indian as well as foreign tourists. The state’s Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) growth rate was at about 11.39 per cent between 2004-05 and 2015-16.The state’s per capita Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) was US$ 4,765.7, one of the highest in India, in 2015-16.

After tourism if any industry requires a mention, then it’s the mining industry in Goa. Goa is a leading producer and exporter of iron ore, manganese, bauxite, high magnesia, limestone and clay.The exports of iron ore began right at the turn of the 20th century. Now Goa, exports iron ore to prime locations all around the globe such as China, Taiwan, South Korea and eastern European countries.

Governance

Goa comprises of 27 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Goa is controlled on the same path as in other states of the country. The Goa Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 40 members. Goa has 2 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 1 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Goa Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Goa is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Bombay High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Goa. Bombay High Court bench is established at Panjim of Goa won 30th October 1982.

Tourism

Goa (Go Goa) the land of beaches, is known for its striking landscape, famous beaches in India, astounding monuments and churches and bustling Goa nightlife. Goa ranges from the thickly forested Western Ghats Mountains and runs through lush green environs. It attracts a large number of tourists from all over the world, round the year. There are several places to visit & tourist attraction points in Goa, making the Goa travel information and tourism guide incredibly rich with Goa Map & Images. No matter that Goa constitutes India’s smallest state, however its pocket-sized attraction is what makes everyone stop in awe and wonder. Clear skies and distant horizon wins every heart.

Goa is distinctly divided into North Goa and South Goa. Beaches in Goa are the best part of the excellence list of the beach state, where you can rejuvenate yourself. Arambol, Mandrem, Morjim, Vagator, Anjuna, Baga, Calangute, Candolim and Miramar are just some of the most popular beaches in north Goa.

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