Gujarat


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Gujarat - The Land of the Legends, stretches out into the Arabian Sea, with a hint of the desert and with a coastline of 1666 kms long. During the 8th and 9th centuries AD. The Gujjars passed through Punjab and settled in some parts of western India, which came to be known as Gujarat. "Aavo Padharo", words of welcome in the language of Gujarat because it is here that these words ring truly and the guest is 'God' and the people of Gujarat are gregariously friendly, inviting and will entice you to come again and again.

Gujarat State Basic Information

Capital Ahmedabad
Area 196,024 sq. km
Population 60,439,692
No. of District 33
Literacy Rate 78.03%
Chief Minister Vijay Rupani
Governer Om Prakash Kohli
Sex Ratio 919
Language Gujarati, Hindi, Sanskrit
Date of Formation 1 May 1960
State Animal Asiatic lion
State Bird Greater flamingo
State Flower Marigold
State Tree Ficus benghalensis
Official Website www.gujaratindia.com

History

Gujarat gets its name from "Gujjar Rashtra" or "Gujjaratta", the land of the Gujjars, has experienced the advent of a man and is fortunate in having a rich heritage of historical records among the states of Indian Subcontinent. The Gujjars ruled the area during the 700's and 800's. They were a migrant tribe who came to India in the wake of the invading Huns in the 5th century. The history of Gujarat dates back to 2000 BC. The history of Gujarat is very ancient and dates back to pre-historic age. It can be summarized into three periods i.e. Ancient, Medieval and Modern periods.

Ancient Period

The first settlers in the State of Gujarat were Gujjars who happened to be an ethnic group of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The word 'Gujarat' gained currency during Chalukya period (942 - 1299 A.D). Before this period parts of Gujarat were known as Anarta, Lata and Surastra.

Pre-Historic Period

The earliest Archeological traces indicate the Indus Valley Civilization as historical relics with the stone age settlements are found in Gujarat around Sabarmati and Mahi rivers. Its roots are also in the Harappan traces found at Lothal, Rampur, Amri and other places. The above mentioned rivers have preserved for us in their deposits, the relics of the man who lived on their banks, making his tools from pebbles collected from the beds of the rivers and maintaining himself by hunting animals and collecting roots and fruits.

Proto-Historic Period

Proto-Historic Period of Gujarat is mainly related to Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier States of Gujarat while his grandson, King Ashoka extended his domain in Gujarat.. Pushyamitra was a governor (322 BC to 294 BC) of Saurashtra appointed by Mauryan regime. He ruled Giringer or Junagadh and built a dam on the Sudarshan Lake.

Geography

Gujarat is the westernmost state of India. It is bounded in the west by the Arabian sea, in the north-west by Pakistan, in the north by Rajasthan, in the east by Madhya Pradesh and in the south and south-east by Maharashtra. The geographical location of Gujarat is between 20o 6' N to 24o 42' N north latitude and 68o 10'E to 74o 28'E east longitude. Gujarat is counted among the fastest growing Indian states in terms of economy.

Gujarat is Geographically Divided into Three Regions

The famous Rann (desert) of Kutch, the big Rann in the north and the little Rann in the east. The Saurashtra region consists mainly of hilly tract sprinkled with low mountains. The mainland extending from the Rann of Kutch and the Aravalli Hills to the river Damanganga is on the whole a level plain of alluvial soil.

Narmada, which originates at Amarkantak plateau and merges into the Arabian Sea at the end of its journeyis the biggest river of Gujarat. Other rivers are Sabarmati, Tapi, Purna, Damanganga, Rukmavati, etc. flow through Gujarat.

Education

Gujarat is one of the prominent cultural hubs of India. Enriched with the rich heritage, Gujarat is also developing at an impressive rate since the last few decades. Gujarat aims to educate each and every citizen in the coming years. Presently the literacy rate of Gujarat state has increased markedly, with Ahmedabad possessing the highest rate of literate individuals across Gujarat. The present literacy rate of the rural areas of Gujarat is 62.06% while the literacy rate of the urban regions is 82.59%.

Education System of Gujarat

Like all other states, the education system of Gujarat also follows the 10+2 pattern of education. There are pre-primary, primary, secondary, higher-secondary and degree level education available in the state of Gujarat.

Today, Gujarat is developing as well as expanding its educational arena. Their mission is to provide primary education to every nook and corner of the state. Both private and government schools operate here in state. Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board are in charge of the schools run by the state government.

Economy

Over the years Gujarat has evolved into one of the most preferred destinations for industrial investment in the country. Blessed with a variegated and affluent natural resource base, an abundant supply of skilled manpower and sound infrastructure facilities Gujarat is a home to some of the most dynamic entrepreneurs and profitable industries in the country. There were 20,050 (provisional) registered working factories and about 2, 56,388 small scale industrial units on March 31, 2001. Establishments engaged in the manufacture of cotton textiles provide employment to a major portion of the industrial workers followed by the manufacture of non-metallic mineral products.

Agriculture in Gujarat forms a vital sector of the state's economy. It provides the required food grains for the state's population and raw materials for most of the agro-based industries. Unsuitable climatic conditions in some parts and rocky terrain with thin or no soils in others, have limited the area suitable for cultivation. The state is the world's largest producer of processed diamonds, accounting for 72 per cent of the world's processed diamond share and 80 per cent of India's diamond exports. With a contribution of 65 to 70 per cent to India's denim production, Gujarat is the largest manufacturer of denim in the country and the third largest in the world.

At current prices, Gujarat's Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) was about US$ 158.2 billion over 2015-16. Average annual GSDP growth rate from 2004-05 to 2015-16 was about 12.02 per cent. As of June 2016, Gujarat had a total installed power generation capacity of 30,188.75 megawatt (MW).

Governance

Gujarat comprises of 33 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Gujarat is controlled on the same paths as in other states of the country. The Gujarat Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 182 members. Gujarat has 26 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 11 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Gujarat Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Gujarat is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Gujarat High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Gujarat. High Court of Gujarat was established at Ahmedabad on 12th February 2016.

Tourism

Heated in the north by the blistering deserts of Pakistan and Rajasthan, and cooled in the south by the gentle ocean breeze of the Arabian Sea, Gujarat forms India's westernmost bulkhead. While the capital, Ahmedabad, can draw you in with its remarkable architecture and excellent dining scene that transcends its chaos, the countryside holds most of this state's many treasures. The diversity of its topography - forested hilly tracts and fertile plains in the east, vast tidal marshland and desert plains in the Rann of Kutch in the west, with a the rocky shoreline jutting into its heartland - can be compared to the multiplicity of its politics and culture. For the spiritually inclined, sacred Jain and Hindu pilgrimage sites sit atop mountains that rise dramatically from vast flatlands. And colourful festivals burst with a cornucopia of culture. Gujarat is the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi, born Mohandas Gandhi in Porbandar and a long-time resident of Ahmedabad. In line with his credo of self-dependence, Gujaratis consistently rank at or near the top of the chart in terms of India's economic output, and have fanned around the world to settle abroad.

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