Jammu And Kashmir


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The state of Jammu & Kashmir is the jeweled crown of India with extravagant beauty of Himalayas, sparkling streams, rushing rivers and emerald forests. The state of Jammu & Kashmir shares borders with the states of Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with China in the north and east, and the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and northwest respectively. The state is blessed with diverse ecosystem. In this south lies the Jammu region the lower portion of which is essentially hot in summer and cold in winters, bearing broad leaved forests at lower altitudes in plains and Shiwaliks. The middle part of Jammu region support mostly Chirpine forests where as higher reaches are temperate and support luxuriant coniferous forests, the northwest region between Pir Panjal and Zojila is the Kashmir Valley.

Jammu And Kashmir State Basic Information

Capital Jammu (winter capital), Srinagar(summer capita)
Area 2,22,236 sq. km
Population 12,548,926 (2011)
No. of District 22
Literacy Rate 66.7%
Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti Sayeed
Governer Narinder Nath Vohra
Sex Ratio 889
Language Urdu, Hindi
Date of Formation 26 October 1947
State Animal Kashmir stag
State Bird Black-necked crane
State Flower Sacred Lotus
State Tree Platanus orientalis
Official Website www.jk.gov.in

History

Kashmir has been inhabited since prehistoric times, sometimes independent but at times subjugated by invaders from Bactria, Tartary, Tibet and other mountainous regions to the North, and from the Indus valley and the Ganges valley to the South. According to the Rajatarangini, the first of a series of four histories that record the annals of Kashmir, the oldest ruler was Gonanda I, who appears to have ruled in the days just before the Mahabharata. It is Emperor Ashok who is said to have founded the city of Srinagari, now Srinagar. After Gonanda 1, the most powerful empire was Maurya Empire. The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE. His grandson Ashoka the Great (273-232 BCE) built many stupas in Kashmir, and was succeeded by his son Jalauka. - Prior to the creation of the princely state, Kashmir was ruled by the Durrani Empire, until it was annexed by Sikhs led by Ranjit Singh. During Sikh rule, Jammu was a tributary of the Sikh Empire.In the winter of 1845 war broke out between the British and the Sikhs.

Geography

Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. It shares its borders with china in the east, Pakistan in the West, Afghanistan and Russian in the North and plains of Punjab and Himachal in the south and south-east. Jammu & Kashmir is situated between 32.17 degree and 36.58 degree north latitude and 37.26 degree and 80.30 degree east longitude. The total area of the State is 222,236 sq. kms including 78,114 sq kms under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and 42,685 sq kms under that of China. The vast majority of the state's territory is mountainous, and the physiography is divided into seven zones that are closely associated with the structural components of the western Himalayas. The regions of state Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh have distinct agro climatic characteristics and cultural identity. The foothills of the Himalayas, rising from about 2,000 to 7,000 feet (600 to 2,100 metres), form outer and inner zones. The outer zone consists of sandstones, clays, silts, and conglomerates, influenced by Himalayan folding movements and eroded to form long ridges and valleys called duns.

Culture

Jammu and Kashmir has the distinction of having multifaceted, variegated and unique cultural blend, making it distinct from the rest of the country, not only from the different cultural forms and heritage, but from geographical, demographically, ethical, social entities, forming a distinct spectrum of diversity and diversions into Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh, all professing diverse religion, language and culture, but continuously intermingling, making it vibrant specimens of Indian Unity amidst diversity. During their long periods of independence, isolation and solidarity, the people of Kashmir developed a unique culture making everlasting contributions to learning and literature.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is mainly divided into three regions namely Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, each region having its own unique traditions and customs. Kashmir is mainly inhabited by Muslims, Jammu by the Hindus and Ladakh by the Buddhists. However the best thing is that they reflect unity in diversity. The Dogras are another community of the state.

Education

Jammu and Kashmir is the only state where education is free up to university stage.The government of Jammu Kashmir has promised to do anything with regards to the upliftment of students. There will be no influence of political pressure in Jammu and Kashmir. Education in Jammu and Kashmir will never remain bogged off. Rather, there will be a pressure from political front to provide a good education to the students residing in Jammu and Kashmir.People from all over the world flock to Jammu and Kashmir to enjoy the state's natural beauty, but the poor educational set up here discourages students from traveling to Jammu and Kashmir to seek admission in its schools and colleges. Against the national literacy rate of 75.96% for males and 54.28% for females, the state has a literacy figure of only 65.74% for males and 41.82% for females respectively.

The students in the lower classes from nursery to class 5 will be treated under primary section. There after there will be a middle level of education till the students achieves the certificate of matriculation.here are more than 15000 schools within the state's boundaries today. Hindi is the medium of instruction for school education in Jammu and Kashmir. Like in other parts of the country, Jammu and Kashmir also follows the 10+2 pattern of schooling. The schools in the North Indian state are affiliated to the Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School education (JKBOSE). In addition, there are four polytechnics to impart vocational training. District institutes of education have been opened in all the districts of the state to provide extensive and intensive training to the teachers.

Economy

Jammu and Kashmir's economy is mostly dependent on farming and animal husbandry. Majority of the population of the state depends on agriculture. The Kashmir valley is also known for its sericulture and cold-water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is also very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. J&K contributes approximately 0.76% to national GDP and ranks 20th in the list of contributing states. Between 2004-05 and 2015-16, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of J&K increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.2 per cent to US$ 17.73 and the Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) increased at a CAGR of 8.3 per cent to US$ 12.5 billion.

Tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. Although the tourism economy in the Kashmir Valley has been hit by the terrorism threat, Jammu and Ladakh continue to remain as popular tourist destinations. Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course.

Governance

Jammu and Kashmir comprises of 22 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Jammu and Kashmir is controlled on the same paths as in other states of the country. The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 6 members. Jammu and Kashmir has 11 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 5 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Jammu and Kashmir Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Jammu and Kashmir is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Jammu and Kashmir High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Jammu and Kashmir. High Court of Jammu and Kashmir was established on 26 March 1928. The seats of the High Court were at Jammu and Srinagar.

Tourism

The northern most state of Jammu and Kashmir with a heady combination of imposing mountains, placid lakes mirroring the sky overhead, picture pretty gardens, not to mention the lip smacking cuisines, Red Apples, Red Cheeks and Ruby Weather... Kashmir, the Real Paradise on Earth- Frailty that prevails in the benign valley of Kashmir often disheartens those with humble hearts; still, Kashmir gives you million of reasons to celebrate its existence. It also encapsulates the cultural and religious diversity of the Subcontinent by falling into three distinct regions. The southwestern corner of its sprawling expanse is the Hindu-majority area around the winter capital of Jammu.

The state of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) brings together three incredibly different worlds. Hindu Jammu and Katra, in the south, are the state's rail hubs and a major draw for domestic pilgrims. Muslim Kashmir is India's Switzerland, attracting hordes of local tourists seeking cool summer air, alpine scenery and Srinagar's romantic houseboat accommodation. And then there's the Himalayan land of Ladakh, which for most foreigners is J&K's greatest attraction.The prized possession of Jammu & Kashmir state, the Valley of Kashmir renders opportunities to experience nature's best. From splendid Srinagar to isolated Gurez valley, the gamut of awe-aspiring vista is endless here. Travel to Kashmir to cherish the impeccable natural beauty, where inhabits a gentle race of people.

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